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Unformatted text preview: Kraemer (1948) – Outlawed
agreements among white not to sell houses to
blacks. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
– The NAACP challenge to school segregation
succeeded on the grounds that separate facilities
denied kids equal protection under the law
233 (feeling of inferiority generated). Still, the SC
didn’t order desegregation directly until a year
later, and even then there was no definite
schedule, so Southern schools resisted.
- In general, much of the South resisted the push towards
civil rights – White Citizens’ Councils created to resist
the school order – and Northern cities maintained a
policy of segregation in terms of housing.
- And the election of Eisenhower didn’t help as Ike
ignored the issue (like he did everything else) hoping it
would gradually resolve itself – i.e. he objected to
compulsory federal segregation laws, therefore
encouraging white noncompliance to orders through his
lack of leadership.
- Then in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957, the test of
school integration occurred when whites tried to block the
8 black kids from entering Central High. In the end,
Eisenhower was forced to send army paratroopers to
ensure their safety. In response, schools were closed for
the following 2 years to avoid desegregation.
- There was also the whole Rosa Parks and
Montgomery Bus Boycott deal in 1955 – after Parks
was arrested, blacks under the leadership of MLK, a
follower of Gandhi and advocate of non-violent protest,
boycotted the buses until they were integrated – partially
b/c of economic reasons and partially b/c of an SC
decision that declared the segregation laws
- Civil Rights Act (1957) – Created the US Commission
Civil Rights to investigate discrimination, but proved
- As a result, blacks started a campaign of sit-ins in the
South, which helped by giving their cause publicity and
234 demonstrating the brutality of Southern Whites who
attacked the non-violent protestors. The SNCC (Student
Nonviolent Coordination Committee) was formed b/c of
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2014 for the course APUSH AP United taught by Professor Orban during the Fall '10 term at Harrison High School, Harrison.
- Fall '10