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Unformatted text preview: dent leader: he passed the Pendleton Civil Service
Act (1883), supported RRD regulation, and used the veto
to control business.
- Grover Cleveland (Democrat, 1885 – 1889) expanded
civil service, vetoed private pension bills, and tried [and
failed] to lower tariffs. Cleveland was defeated in 1888 by
Benjamin Harrison (Republican, 1889 – 1893) b/c he
was better at cheating.
- Through various methods, Harrison influenced the
legislation that was passed, resulting in more bills than
usual; issues dealt w/included civil service reform and the
Dependents’ Pension Act [Union veterans].
153 Consequently, though, the budget exploded, giving the
Democrats another opportunity.
- Cleveland ran again and won, during his second term
(1893 – 1897) he attempted to deal w/currency, tariffs,
and labor problems but ended up having to rely on big
business, esp. b/c of the panic of 1893.
*Limits of Gilded Age Politics*
- Not everyone was included in Gilded Age politics, both
in the North and the South. Race was of particular
relevance in the South, though, where poor whites tried
to squash the freedmen in order to preserve their own
real or imagined social superiority.
- Race violence became commonplace in the South, as
did disenfranchisement via poll taxes and bogus literacy
tests [this was permitted b/c of US v. Reese, which ruled
that Congress couldn’t control voting rights outside of the
explicit conditions mentioned in the 15th Amendment].
- Worse still, as a result of a series of decisions by the
SC in the 1870s that climaxed in 1883 when the 1875
Civil Rights Act [prohibited segregation in public facilities]
was struck down, blacks were stuck w/”separate but
equal” facilities. This was upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) and Commins v. Board of Education (1899), and
was followed by the proliferation of Jim Crow laws.
- To cope, blacks tried to get educations, and black
women often joined with white women to push for reform,
especially reform relating to nat’l suffrage. Two major
organizations led the fight: the NWSA [militants Elizabeth
Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony wanted overall rights]
and the AWSA [suffra...
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- Fall '10