The latter idea which arose around 1910 was known as

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Unformatted text preview: g question was: how can general welfare benefit w/o oppressing minorities? Social Science – Similar to changes in law, new scholars began to argue that economic relationships depended on social conditions [as opposed to being timeless]. Progressive historians [Frederick Jackson Turner, Charles 164 A. Beard] also emphasized the flexibility of the Constitution – it has to serve each age in its own way. Public Health – New organizations, like the National Consumers League joined scientists to combat workplace hazards, help female workers, and urge for food safety regulations. Eugenics – B/c of Darwin, some people [Francis Galton] came up w/the idea that society had an obligation to prevent “defective” people from reproducing. This resulted in laws in some states allowing sterilization of criminals and the mentally ill. This thinking received a boost in The Passing of the Great Race (1916) by Madison Grant, which held that immigrants were threatening the superior Nordic race. - MOST IMPORTANTLY, though, was the Social Gospel – Underlying all Progressive actions was the idea that, instead of Social Darwinism, people have an obligation to help improve society. This idea was rooted in religion, and in the previous evangelical reform movement philosophies. *Challenges to Racial/Sexual Discrimination* - Most minorities were ignored by Progressives, but they found their own leaders willing to challenge inequality. By 1900, in the South, blacks faced constant segregation via Jim Crow laws [caused by Plessy v. Ferguson], discrimination, and violence. This held true, to a lesser degree, even when they moved North. - There were two main leaders/responses to the problem faced by blacks: 165 Booker T. Washington [rural] – Through “SelfHelp” [hard work leading to economic success], Washington felt that blacks could eventually acquire social and political rights. For the time being, however, he felt that they should compromise with whites – though he did not feel blacks were i...
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