The ratification clause of the constitution stated

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Unformatted text preview: f of the armed forces. A key element was separation of powers and checks and balances. - Then there was the whole should we count slaves dilemma…naturally Southern states wanted them counted for representation purposes and Northern states only wanted them counted for taxation purposes. In the end a slave was declared to be 3/5th of a person. Also, inherent protections of slavery were worked in to the Constitution (slave trade couldn’t end for 20 years, fugitive slave laws, etc.) - Anyhow, the CC had its last session on September 17, 1787 and only then was the Constitution made public. All that was left was ratification… *Opposition and Ratification* - Later in September the CC submitted the Constitution to the states but didn’t formally recommend its approval. The ratification clause of the Constitution stated that it 58 would be approved by special conventions in at least 9 states (delegates were to be qualified voters – so it was directly based on popular authority.) - As states began electing delegates, two distinct camps formed: Federalists – the Federalists supported the Constitution and stuck by the virtuous, selfsacrificing republic led by a merit-based aristocracy idea. Since leaders were to be virtuous, there was no need to fear a strong central gov’t. Besides, there was the separation of powers. Antifederalists – the Antifederalists felt that weakening the states would lead to the onset of arbitrary and oppressive gov’t power (based on Real Whig ideology.) Antifederalists were generally old hard core revolutionaries (Tom Paine, Sam Adams, etc.) and small farmers. - One thing that was big on the Antis agenda was the idea of a Bill of Rights (why doesn’t the Constitution have one?), best expressed in the major Anti pamphlet, Letters of a Federal Farmer. - Anyhow, the Federalists won out (duh), partially b/c of the publication of The Federalist and partially b/c of the promise to add a bill of rights. Ratification was (prematurely, it turns out) celebrated on July 4, 1788. The Early Republic (1789 – 1800) *Creating a Workable Government Structure* 59 - The First Congress, which first met in April 1789, was mostly controlled by the...
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