Then irish immigrants replaced ne girls as the work

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Unformatted text preview: ants engaged in complex transactions – leading to both the rise of the office as we know it and the expansion of financial institutions. - The Second Bank of the US, which was esp. attacked during the Panic of 1819, was finally killed off in 1836, leading to a nat’l credit shortage, which, combined with the Panic of 1837, led to reforms in banking. - The new free banking system, initially introduced in Michigan and NY, meant that any bank that met minimum standards would get a charter automatically. This stimulated the economy in the 1840s/1850s. *Workers and the Workplace* - At first, the young farm women who came to the NE textile mills were very optimistic, and the mills operated on the paternalistic Lowell System, which provided the women with good working conditions. - But from 1837 – 1842, demand for cloth declined and the mills worked only part-time, causing managers to 89 pressure workers by speeding out the machines, giving each girl more machines to work, and paying extra if workers produced the most cloth. Hours lengthened, wages were cut, and discipline increased. - Workers responded by organizing and striking, but they were unsuccessful. In the 1840s, more concerted efforts to shorten the workday began – worker-run newspapers, labor organizations [these didn’t work that well b/c workers stayed only a short time]. Then, Irish immigrants replaced NE girls as the work became less skilled in the 1850s. - Another important result of manufacturing was the sharp division between men’s and women’s jobs and cultures. Also, the market economy devalued the unpaid labor of women in the home. - The hierarchical organization of the factories, impersonal nature of labor, dangers from machines, and the lack of opportunities for advancement combined to produce new labor organizations and labor parties. - Although the parties tended to agree on advocating free public education, an end to debt imprisonment, and were anti-bank/anti-monopoly, they were still divided, weak, and stayed pretty local. Their big...
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