With the exception of an act ending the foreign slave

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Unformatted text preview: Madison’s programs. 80 - The only place that remained a Federalist stronghold was the Supreme Court, which was still led by Chief Justice John Marshall. He ruled in favor of a strong central gov’t in the following cases: Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – in this case the SC ruled against a Georgia law that violated individuals’ rights to make contracts. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – in this case SC ruled against a Maryland law taxing the Second Bank of the US and consequently asserted the supremacy of the federal gov’t over the sates. Marshall also reinforced a loose constructionist view of the Constitution by reaffirming that Congress had the right to charter the bank. He sided w/the commercial/industrial side too. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) – in this case the SC nullified a NH law altering the charter of Dartmouth College. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – confirmed federal jurisdiction over interstate commerce. - So Madison’s second term and Monroe’s terms were characterized by nat’lism and improvement in transportation, the military, and manufacturing. *Slavery and the Missouri Compromise* - Nat’lism united Americans, but the question of slavery still threatened to divide them. With the exception of an act ending the foreign slave trade [January 1, 1808], the issue had been avoided as much as possible. - In 1819 [Monroe’s first term], however, debate over slavery became unavoidable when Missouri petitioned Congress for admission to the Union as a slave state. 81 - The issue dominated Congress for 2½ years, for it could easily upset the carefully created balance between slave and free states. If Missouri was admitted as a slave state, slavery would be push towards the North, and slave states would gain a one-vote edge over free states in Congress. - At one point NY Representative James Tallmadge, Jr. proposed gradual emancipation in Missouri, which outraged Southerners. Although the House passed the Tallmadge amendment, the Senate rejected it. - Finally, in 1820 House Speaker Henry...
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