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Unformatted text preview: Madison’s programs.
80 - The only place that remained a Federalist stronghold
was the Supreme Court, which was still led by Chief
Justice John Marshall. He ruled in favor of a strong
central gov’t in the following cases: Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – in this case the SC
ruled against a Georgia law that violated
individuals’ rights to make contracts. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – in this case SC
ruled against a Maryland law taxing the Second
Bank of the US and consequently asserted the
supremacy of the federal gov’t over the sates.
Marshall also reinforced a loose constructionist
view of the Constitution by reaffirming that
Congress had the right to charter the bank. He
sided w/the commercial/industrial side too. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) – in this
case the SC nullified a NH law altering the charter
of Dartmouth College. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – confirmed federal
jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
- So Madison’s second term and Monroe’s terms were
characterized by nat’lism and improvement in
transportation, the military, and manufacturing.
*Slavery and the Missouri Compromise*
- Nat’lism united Americans, but the question of slavery
still threatened to divide them. With the exception of an
act ending the foreign slave trade [January 1, 1808], the
issue had been avoided as much as possible.
- In 1819 [Monroe’s first term], however, debate over
slavery became unavoidable when Missouri petitioned
Congress for admission to the Union as a slave state.
81 - The issue dominated Congress for 2½ years, for it
could easily upset the carefully created balance between
slave and free states. If Missouri was admitted as a slave
state, slavery would be push towards the North, and
slave states would gain a one-vote edge over free states
- At one point NY Representative James Tallmadge, Jr.
proposed gradual emancipation in Missouri, which
outraged Southerners. Although the House passed the
Tallmadge amendment, the Senate rejected it.
- Finally, in 1820 House Speaker Henry...
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- Fall '10