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Unformatted text preview: through the
“Red Summer” of 1919.
- So, economically, the war brought increased gov’t
involvement and a temporary boom in industry.
*America on the Home Front: Civil Liberties* 187 - As soon as the war began, the gov’t also instituted
control of rather a different sort – control of speech, and
the limiting of civil liberties. Anyone who refused to
support the war faced repression from the gov’t, and the
issue of free speech was seen as a question of policy for
the first time. For example, there was the… Committee on Public Information – Headed by
Progressive journalist George Creel, the CPI set
about the making of propaganda through posters,
films, pamphlets, speeches, and so on. Espionage Act (1917) – The EA forbade “false
statements” against the draft or the military, and
banned anti-war mails. Sedition Act (1918) – The SA made it illegal to
obstruct the sale of war bonds and to use nasty
language against the gov’t, Constitution, flag, or
uniform. It was very vague, and allowed for plenty
of gov’t intimidation. Imprisonment of Sots – As a result of the
new acts, IWW members and Sots faced
major problems. For example, Eugene V. Debs,
the leader of the Sot Party, was arrested for
speaking about the freedom to criticize the gov’t. Spread of Vigilante Organizations – Some people
thought they would help out by…umm…helping
get rid of unpatriotic people or bullying them into
buying Liberty Loans and such. These
organizations included the Sedition Slammers
and American Defense Society.
- These steps led to a questioning of the whole free
speech thing – CO Roger Baldwin founded the Civil
Liberties Bureau to defend people accused under the 188 E/S Acts and redefined free speech as something
separate from the identity of the speaker.
- Two important SC cases also dealt w/the new
developments: Schenck v. US (1919), in which Holmes
upheld the EA by using the whole fire in a movie theater
argument [if there is a “clear and present” danger free
speech should be restricted], and Abrams v. US (1919) in
which the SA was also upheld [but this time Holmes and
*The American Reaction to the Bolshevik R...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2014 for the course APUSH AP United taught by Professor Orban during the Fall '10 term at Harrison High School, Harrison.
- Fall '10