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East Asia Notes

East Asia Notes - East Asia Notes Environment Tibetan...

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East Asia Notes Environment Tibetan Plateau In Southwest Is an uplifted massif - a mountainous block of earth’s crust “roof of the world” Continental Margin Bulk of East Asian pop. Lives here Contains plains, hills, continental shelves, and islands Japanese archipelago islands and volcanic ranges are part of “Ring of Fire” Physical environment of E. Asia is relatively hazardous Earthquakes and seismic activity Earthquakes also cause landslides by effectively loosening the soil Japan: - one of Earth’s most geologically active zones b/c it is at junction of three tectonic plates: Eurasian, Philippine, and Pacific plates - at least 60 active volcanoes - earthquakes Climate Tibetan Plateau- arid, high elevations make for cool summers and extremely cold winters Northern Regime- subhumid - winters are cold and very dry - summers are warm w. moderate amounts of rain from southeasterly summer monsoon winds - rainfall is very variable so drought and flooding both occur frequently Southern Regime- humid and subtropical - winters are mild and rainy - summers are hot w. heavy monsoonal rains Drought in arid an subhumid areas is a critical hazard- causing widespread famine as result of crop failures Rivers- those that flow thru plains carry large amounts of silt - silt builds up in areas and makes course unstable - leads to bursts in banks, and heavy flooding Environmental History
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- principal human impact has been through clearing land for farming - humid and subhumid areas were cleared of forest cover - landscapes were modified for water control marshes drained irrigation systems constructed lakes converted to reservoirs levees raised to prevent against river floods terraces made out of mountainside for more cultivable land - “Outer China” – arid western parts of E. Asia pretty much untouched, contains barely 4 % of pop. Ancient Empires China - continuous agricultural civilization - Great Wall built to protect China from barbarian nomads - Canal System (pg. 404) - Economic center was in the South (agricultural area) - Political center was in the North Japan - strong influence of Buddhism - Kyoto became new capital & residence of Japanese Imperial family, a principal center of Japanese culture - From 1600’s-1800’s, Tokugawa dynasty strove to sustain traditional Japanese society Closed off ports to foreigners Prohibited construction of very large ships Suppressed commercial enterprise Imperial Economy- -heirarchy of Castle Towns under rule of a shogun -status dependent on productivity of agricultural land -largest cities emerged among rich alluvial plains -new capital became what is today known as Tokyo (it was the most productive castle town and became heavily populated) Imperial Decline - economy stalled under constraints of imperial system - famines and peasant uprisings resulted - peasantry fleed countryside to the cities (where it was more prosperous and free) - European traders in E. Asia had become a growing influence
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East Asia Notes - East Asia Notes Environment Tibetan...

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