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Unformatted text preview: reading are only average in the OECD, at 19th, 16th and 10th The oil & gas cluster in Norway 9 place respectively (OECD ­PISA, 2009). These data raise concerns about the ability of the country to innovate and increase the technological sophistication of its economy. The tertiary education system mirrors this tendency: although the enrollment in tertiary education is among the highest in the developed world—33% (OECD, 2009)— Norway lacks world ­class universities. Indeed, there is only one Norwegian institution among the world’s top 200 universities, compared to 6 in Switzerland, 4 in Sweden and 4 in Belgium. Moreover, no Norwegian institutions are included in the ranking of top Schools of Engineering (Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ranking, 2011). Factor Conditions: Research & Development The OECD has explored what it refers to as “the Norwegian Puzzle”: despite weak innovation inputs and even weaker outputs, income per capita in Norway is very high. Norway’s expenditures on R&D are much lower than peers (1.61% of GDP vs. 1.92% in the EU), with a lower contribution from the private sector (53% vs. 63%) (Eurostat, 2008). The oil & gas cluster in Norway 10 Norway has increased its patenting output in the last decade, but is significantly less innovative than leading OECD countries (US Patent and Trademark Office, 2010), in particular in the high ­tech area. The cause of this apparent contradiction between the performance of the innovation system and the economy has been intensely discussed. For the time being, the most accepted explanation is the structure of the Norwegian economy. According to the OECD, if Norway had the same industry structure as the average OECD country, it would have the 4th highest R&D intensity in the OECD rather than the 10th (OECD, 2008). Norway does not have large firms in sectors with high R&D intensities since a large part of t...
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