As is the case with national rd outcomes statoils

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Unformatted text preview: ory for technology,” especially in field development, enhanced recovery, and CO2 reduction. The first important innovation by Norwegian shipbuilders in the 1970s was Condeep, the offshore concrete platform. In 1996, a much improved iteration of this technology, the Troll A platform, became the tallest construction that has ever been moved The oil & gas cluster in Norway 21 to another location. Norwegian suppliers also invented hits, such as floating production platforms (1992) and multiphase transport (1996). Enhanced oil recovery innovations, such as water injection (1986), 3D seismic (1979), 4D seismic (1999) and subsea processing (2007), have improved recovery rates from 17% in 1969 to an average of 46% in 2010, an increase of $25 billion in total NPV (Sasson, 2011). In the gas field, Sleipner, the first offshore Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) was started in 1998 and deposited 1 million tons of CO2 per year to reduce the CO2 content from 9% to 2.5% (OG21, 2010). Consequently, Norway has the lowest kilograms of CO2 equivalent per unit produced in the world (9.2 versus 10.1 and 26 for Europe and North America respectively). According to the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, “All of these innovations came about as the result of a close collaboration between Operators and Suppliers.” Going forward, since the age of “easy oil” is over, oil and gas production globally will take place in areas that are more and more difficult to access, in deeper waters and harsher climates. 5 out of the 8 top oil and gas discoveries in 2011 were offshore, in depths ranging from 300 ­3,000 meters deep (Kammerzell, 2012). Norwegian suppliers are well positioned to take advantage of this opportunity and provide operators with improved performance that tra...
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