Firms should also further develop rd satellite

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Unformatted text preview: rect market failures and hedge technological risks. Innovation and quality of R&D may be improved in three ways: i) using existing capabilities in successful industries with a “Program for Spillovers,” ii) fostering international cooperation to increase the sophistication of local capabilities, working at three levels: academia, government and firms, and iii) improving the linkages between R&D and start ­ups that commercialize new technologies through IFCs and new and more comprehensive public ­private partnerships. Challenge no. 4: Medium and Higher Education The quality of high ­level training in science and technology lags peers, and the outcomes in science and mathematics do not match the levels of expenditure. Recommendations: Review and strengthen the science curriculum in primary and secondary education. Norway should find ways to make science and technology more attractive for youth, increase the public recognition of technical careers, and place a special 3 Norway currently does not have any agency dedicated to attracting inward FDI. The World Bank used the sub ­national Oslo Teknopol to assess the country’s investment strategy. The oil & gas cluster in Norway 28 focus on women. The government should foster more cooperation between industry and academia both nationally and internationally to promote excellence. The number of co ­op opportunities for university students should be increased. Cluster Level Recommendations Challenge no. 1: Shortage of Skilled Labor and Insufficient Incentives The cluster is facing a shortage of engineers and other domestic skilled labor due to lack of supply and misalignment of incentives that threatens the growth of the cluster. Recommendations:...
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