Cartesian Skepticism: Descartes' Meditation I

Cartesian Skepticism: Descartes' Meditation I - Intro to...

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Intro to Philosophy / Prof. Pruim’s Notes /      Subjectivism v. Objectivism in Ethics / p.      1    I. Terminology: Objective v. Subjective Judgments, and Ethical Objectivism v. Ethical Subjectivism. A. Objective judgments (Example: “The sun contains hydrogen.”) 1. Objective statements are about objects in the external world, not about us and our thoughts. 2. Thus, the truth value of this statement is determined by facts, by how things actually are. 3. Thus, with an objective judgment, believing that it is true is not the same thing as its being true. Illustration: “Lily believes the sun contains iron.” ≠ “The sun does contain iron.” B. Subjective judgments (Example: “Men should wear hats with their suits”) 1.A subjective statement is really only about us; it reports what we think believe or desire. 2. So, in the case of subjective judgments, believing that it is true is the same thing as its being true . Illustration: “Men ought to wear hats,” (said by Lily) = “I (Lily) believe men look attractive in hats.” ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - What then would it mean to be an Objectivist about ethics as opposed to a Subjectivist about ethics? D. Ethical Objectivism is the view that: There are facts about what is right and what is wrong. Ethical judgments are true only if they agree with the facts about what is right and wrong. So, believing that an action is right is not the same thing as the action being right. E. Ethical Subjectivism is the view that: There are no facts about what is right and what is wrong. Ethical judgments are nothing other than expressions of what the speaker believes or likes. So: “Act A is right” said by speaker S = “I (speaker S) approve of/like/believe in doing act A.”
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Intro to Philosophy / Prof. Pruim’s Notes /      Subjectivism v. Objectivism in Ethics / p.      2    II. Cultural Relativism (a form of Subjectivism). A. The Position. Cultural Relativists note that different cultures have different moral codes. Whose code is correct?
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Cartesian Skepticism: Descartes' Meditation I - Intro to...

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