Phys 471 session 1 - Phys 471.3 Synchrotron Physics There are four parts(and instructors to this class Beamline instrumentation Emil Hallin(7 lectures

Phys 471 session 1 - Phys 471.3 Synchrotron Physics There...

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Phys 471.3 Synchrotron Physics There are four parts (and instructors) to this class: Beamline instrumentation Emil Hallin (7 lectures) Storage ring instrumentation Les Dallin (5 lectures) Spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation Alexander Moewes (7 lectures) Scattering with synchrotron radiation John Tse (6 lectures) The next 7 lectures: (1) Interaction radiation & matter, excitation processes, atoms, molecules, solids (2) X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS): XANES, NEXAFS, EXAFS. (3) X-ray absorption spectroscopy. (4) Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES): UPS, XPS, ARPES, AES. (5) X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and RIXS. (6) Other techniques: Inverse photoemission, Infrared spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, spatially resolved techniques (X-ray Microscopy, Tomography). (7) Spectacular research Examples.
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The goals of the spectroscopic lecture part:What are the basic transitions that can be excited in an atom, molecule and solid in a certain wavelength range?Illustrate practical applications of the different spectroscopic techniques.Which physical or chemical properties can be probed by a technique?Touch on the underlying theoretical models.Ultimately you will be able to tackle the following problem:In order to probe a certain excitation or property, Which energy rangeis required?Which resolutionis required?Which techniquehas to be used to probe a certain excitation?
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Important historical milestones #1 ¾ 1873: Maxwell equations : Changing charge densities lead to Electric fields that radiate outwards concept of Electromagnetic waves . ¾ 1887: Hertz demonstrated such waves ¾ 1895: Roentgen ‘discovers’ X-Rays ¾ 1921: Nobelprize for Einstein’s photoeffect electron carries quantized energy, momentum & spin
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Important historical milestones #2 ¾ 1920: EXAFS phenomenon (Kronig, Kossel) ¾ 1925: Kramers-Heisenberg formula ¾ 1947: First synchrotron light ¾ 1970: Synchrotrons become available as light sources ¾ 1971: EXAFS theoretical description by Sayers et al ¾ Today we have about 50 Synchrotrons world-wide.
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Range Wavelength Energy Infrared: 3 mm – 800 nm 0.4 meV – 1.6 eV Visible: 400 – 800 nm 1.6 - 3.1 eV UV: 100 – 400 nm 3.1 12.4 eV VUV: 1 – 100 nm 12.4 – 1240 eV XUV: 1 – 10 nm 124 – 1240 eV X-rays: 6.2 – 0.12 Å 2 – 100 keV γ -rays: < 0.12 Å 100 keV Laser FEL Bremsstrahlung Excitations Electronspin Rotations Valence core nucleus Nucleus spin Vibrations electrons electrons Planck T [K] 1.43 × 10 -4 1.43 × 10 -2 1.43 14.3 1430 1.43 × 10 5 1.43 × 10 7 1.43 × 10 10 [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] eV MHz cm J eV eV E cm A eV E hc h E k hc T Planck 4 1 19 1 10 24 . 1 98 . 29 1 10 602 . 1 1 8066 1 12400 = = = = = = = = = ν λ ν λ λ ν λ
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Solid State Spectroscopy: many different techniques & distinctions Spectroscopy is the analysis of the energy of radiation (regardless of whether this radiation is electromagnetic or embodied in particles.).
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