Carbon Compounds and Chem Reactions and Enzymes

Carbon Compounds and Chem Reactions and Enzymes - Inorganic...

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Inorganic Compound • Most do not contain carbon • living organisms contain inorganic compounds and organic compounds – water is an important inorganic compound • 65% of the human body weight is water • can store heat well
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Organic Compounds • occur naturally only in living things • contain the elements carbon and hydrogen • many oxygen and nitrogen • less frequently – phosphorus, sulfur, iron, calcium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium and potassium
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Elements of Life CHNOPS Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Sulfur
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Major categories of Organic compounds • carbohydrates (sugars and starches) • lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) • proteins (functional and structural) • nucleic acids (RNA and DNA)
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Carbon Compounds include that consist of which contain that consist of that consist of that consist of which contain which contain which contain Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins Sugars and starches Fats and oils Nucleotides Amino Acids Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus Carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen,
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Carbohydrates • Contain carbon - hydrogen - oxygen (1:2:1 ratio) • Names end in -ose • monosacchrides - basic unit of carbohydrates – glucose, fructose, and galactose • disaccharide - two simple sugars – maltose, lactose and sucrose • polysaccharides - several simple sugars – starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
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How Many? Carbon = Hydrogen = Oxygen = Glucose a monosaccharide 6 12 6 2:1 H:O
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Starch Glucose Go to Section: Starch is made of many glucose molecules bonded together by dehydration synthesis
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Dehydration Synthesis • dehydration synthesis – Synthesis means “putting together” – dehydration means “removing water” – “putting together molecules by removing water” • By removing an OH group from one molecule and a H from another you open up a site for the two molecules to bond together. • Cells build larger molecules from smaller molecules by this process • It is a major part of metabolism.
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Hydrolysis • Process that breaks apart large molecules into smaller parts
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Carbon Compounds and Chem Reactions and Enzymes - Inorganic...

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