Carbon Compounds and Chem Reactions and Enzymes

Enzymes work best at certain temperatures optimum

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Unformatted text preview: ving faster • When temp get too high the enzyme loses its shape and stops working. Enzymes work best at certain temperatures optimum temp pH and enzyme action • Enzymes work best at a certain pH • If the pH changes too much the enzyme loses its shape and can not do its’ job optimum pH 3.3 optimum pH 8.8 enzyme concentration and reaction rate • As the enzyme concentration increases the reaction rate increases • When all the enzymes are being used the rate of reaction levels off increases to a point then levels off (all substrate are being used ) more enzyme will not increase the rate of reaction Increasing Enzyme Concentration (Substrate Concentration Constant) Substrate Concentration and reaction rate • As substrate concentration increases the rate of reaction increases • When enough substrate is present to use all the enzyme the rate levels off Increasing Enzyme Concentration (Substrate Concentration Constant) Nucleic Acids • Contain phosphorous, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen • two kinds – DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) • hereditary material found in nucleus – RNA (ribonucleic acid) • transcribed from DNA DNA Structure • Made of repeating nucleotides – phosphate group (PO4) – deoxyribose (5-carbon sugar) – nitrogenous base - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), or cytosine(C) • Base pairing rule for DNA: A - T and C - G Watson - Crick Model • Developed a model of the DNA molecule in 1953 • won Nobel Prize in 1962 • opened the door for modern genetics • molecule – has a “ladder” type organization – twisted into a double helix DNA Replication • The exact self-duplication of the genetic material • replicates during mitosis and meiosis – unwinds and “unzips” along weak hydrogen bonds – free nucleotides take places on both open strands. – two identical DNA molecules result. RNA • Involved in protein synthesis • single stranded, copied from DNA, composed of nucleotides • base paring rule for RNA: A - U and C - G • Information for only one gene • Three main types of RNA – mRNA tRNA rRNA Protein Synthesis • mRNA is transcribed from DNA • mRNA moves to cytoplasm to a ribosome • tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome where they are put together according to the code on the mRNA. • A specific protein is the result...
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