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exam 2 - February 8 2007 Deviance What is deviance Behavior...

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February 8, 2007 Deviance What is deviance? Behavior that does not conform to social expectations Socially created What are the facts about deviance? No act is inherently deviant Varies with the group doing the defining Varies with time Varies cross-culturally Varies by way of explanation Varies by social status We are all deviants February 15, 2007 What are the functions of deviance? Defining the social order A stimulus for change What are the sociological explanations of deviance? Merton’s Anomie and structural stress Mode Goals Means Conformist + + Innovation + - Ritualist - + Retreatist - - Rebel +/- +/- Urbanism Characteristics of the city and city living City does not provide restraints Sutherland’s differential association Dependent upon association with others Frequency, durations, priority, intensity Criminal behavior is learned Criticism Society as a source of deviance
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Labeling Theory o Process by which people are labeled as deviants, not as their acts should be the focus of sociological attention o Primary deviance o Degradation ceremony o Secondary deviance- when you believe that you, yourself, are a deviant February 20, 2007 What is stratification? Inequality is a fact of social life Social differentiation- the process of categorizing people Social stratification- ranking people in a vertical arrangement on the basis of superior/inferiority Structured social inequality- socially patterned Stratification is connected with other aspects of society Social status is determined by the degree to which a person possesses qualities valued by society Criteria for Evaluation Ascribed characteristics Achieved characteristics Social class- same relative economic rank in the stratification system Economic and status Differences in the United States Income is maldistributed in the United States Family Income Distribution: 2001 o Poorest 20% 4.2% o
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