Basics Of Automobile

Highly fuel efficient noisy easy cold starting

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Unformatted text preview: TION DIESEL ENGINES, FUEL IS SPRAYED DIRECTLY ON TOP OF THE PISTON. • Highly fuel efficient • Noisy • Easy cold starting ability INDIRECT INJECTION ENGINE ON INDIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES, FUEL IS SPRAYED ON TO A SEPERATE PRE-CHAMBER. • Less fuel efficient • Less Noisy/smoother • Requires pre-heating for starting PETROL/CNG/LPG ENGINES PETROL ENGINES ARE SPARK IGNITION ENGINES & USE GASOLINE/CNG/LPG FUEL PETROL ENGINES ARE BROADLY CLASSIFIED AS CARBURATED AND FUEL INJECTED ENGINE CARBURETED ENGINE ON CARBURETED ENGINE , THE PETROL & AIR ARE MIXED IN THE CARBURETER BEFORE BEING SENT IN TO THE ENGINE FUEL INJECTED ENGINE ON FUEL INJECTED ENGINES, THE PETROL IS INJECTED SEPERATELY AND THE PETROL AND AIR ARE MIXED INSIDE THE CYLINDER. FUEL INJECTED ENGINES CAN BE FURTHER CLASSIFIED AS : SINGLE/MULTI POINT FUEL INJECTION, Where the fuel is injected outside the cylinder GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION (GDI) , Where the fuel is injected directly in to the engine cylinder INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE RECIPROCATING 4STROKE ROTARY GAS TURBINE 2STROKE COMPRESSION IGNITION (DIESEL) SPARK IGNITION (GASOLINE/LPG/CNG) CARBURETED INDIRECT INJECTION • XD3P • XDP 4.90 • SD 25 DIRECT INJECTION • MDI 3200 • SZ 2600 (SCORPIO) • NEF NA (LOADKING) • SIMPSON S4 • GREAVES • F4-134 • P 2150 • P2150 CNG SINGLE POINT INJECTION MULTI POINT INJECTION • RENAULT F4R • ISUZU THERMAL EFFICIENCY C O O L I N G 33% INPUT FUEL EFFICIENCY = % OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT ENGINE WORK 33% 100% E X H A U S T TYPICAL EFFICIENCIES 33% PETROL - 25% DIESEL IDI - 28-30% DIESEL DI - 32-33% FUEL EFFICIENCY (FUEL CONSUMPTION) FUEL EFFICIENCY IS A COMBINATION OF ENGINE EFFICIENCY, VEHICLE PARAMTERS & DRIVING PATTERN ENGINE EFFICIENCY + TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY (CLUTCH+GEARBOX+DIFFERENTIAL+ WHEELS + TYRES) + WEIGHT/LOAD/SPEED + AERODYNAMIC PARAMETERS (DRAG - BODY SHAPE) + DRIVING PATTERN (DRIVING STYLE & TRAFFIC CONDITIONS) FUEL EFFICIENCY - Kms/Lit OR Lit/100 Kms ENGINE PARAMETERS CLEARANCE VOLUME STROKE, mm BORE,mm CYLINDER CAPACITY,cc ENGINE CAPACITY, cc = CYL. CAPACITY X No OF CYL UNITS - cc - Cubic centimeter - Lit - Liters = cc/1000 ENGINE PARAMETERS BORE, mm : The diameter of the cylinder STROKE, mm : The distance between top most point of piston travel to the bottommost point of piston movement CAPACITY, cc : Also called displacement. The volume displaced by all pistons while moving from top to bottom. Also indicated in Liters. CLEARANCE VOLUME : The volume available above piston, with the piston in top most point. COMPRESSION RATIO : The ratio between the total volume to the clearance volume. VALVE MECHANISM : The mechanism by which the valves are operated. It could be push rod type or overhead camshaft type TIMING SYSTEM : The mechanism by which the camshaft & fuel injection pump are operated . It could be gear driven, chain driven or belt driven. VALVE OPERATING MECHANISM (NO. OF VALVES PER CYLINDER) I E I E 2 VALVES/CYL 2 VALVES/CYL • ALL M&M MODELS E I E I 3 VALVES/CYL E I I 4 VALVES/CYL • SCORPIO PETROL VALVE OPERATING MECHANISM ROCKER SHAFT ROCKER ARM (CAMSHAFT LOCATIONS) ROCKER ARM ROCKER SHAFT CAMSHAFT VALVE HYDRAULIC TAPPET CYL HEAD PUSHROD TAPPET CYL HEAD CYL HE...
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