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Unformatted text preview: olute number of bytes (the difference between code_end and code_start). The other symbols, first_instr, instr_11th and instr_10th, are all relative to the start of the .text section: their exact value is only set when the final executable is created. In general, the following rules apply to relative expressions: relative absolute relative relative + + – – absolute relative absolute relative relative relative relative absolute All other expressions involving relative values are not allowed (except, of course, for the simple case of a symbol by itself). Note also that relative symbols must be in the same section: you cannot find the difference between a label in the .text section and one in the .data section, for example. You may find more information about relative expressions, if you need it, in section 4.1 of the GNU Assembler Reference. –6– Example Files As already mentioned, the examples directory and its subdirectories on your CDROM contain many examples of assembly language programs. These example files illustrate various aspects of the GNU Assembler for the ARM microcontroller. You are encouraged to study these examples—at the very least, you should quickly look through them! In particular, the examples/intro directory contains the following example files; these files should be studied in the order presented: simple.s subr.s values.s pseudo.s jumptbl.s wordcopy.s blockcopy.s copy.s strcopy-a.s strcopy-c.c A simple ARM assembly language program, with which to start Simple subroutines (function calls) Load constant values into registers, with ldr = More information about pseudo-instructions for the ARM Multi-way branches and pointers to functions Copy an array of words, stored in the .data section Copy an array en-masse, with stack pointer initialisation Copy a NUL-terminated string to a buffer (assembler module) String copy using multiple source files, using copy.s Mixing C and assembler for string copy, using copy.s You can create the associated executable files by copying all files in that directory to a temporary one, then use make: mkdir –p ~/intro cd /mnt/cdrom/examples/intro cp * ~/intro cd ~/intro chmod 644 * make all # # # # # # Create a directory to hold the files Assumes CD-ROM is mounted on /mnt/cdrom Copy the files Change to that directory Make the files read/writable Create the executables You can use the simulator provided by either arm-elf-gdb or arm-elf-insight to actually run the executable files; see An Introduction to the GNU Debugger for more details. More Information You can find more information about the GNU Assembler in the GNU Assembler Reference, also called Using AS. This 200-odd-page document is fairly comprehensive, although not particularly user-friendly.3 It can be found in the gnutools/doc directory on your CD-ROM. The definitive reference is the actual source code to the GNU Assembler. You can find this on the CD-ROM in the file gnutools/src/binutils-version.tar.gz for some version number. After unpacking this archive (and applying the appropriate patch file), try browsing the source code files in the gas subdirectory. If you think you can do better, you can always try! That is one of the advantages of having a program with free access to the source code… 3 –7–...
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