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lecture1 notes - 6.207/14.15 Networks Lecture 1...

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6.207/14.15: Networks Lecture 1: Introduction Daron Acemoglu and Asu Ozdaglar MIT September 9, 2009 1
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Networks: Lecture 1 Introduction Outline What are networks? Examples. Small worlds. Economic and social networks. “Network effects”. Networks as graphs. Strong triadic closure. Power in a network. Decisions and games in networks. Implications of strategic behavior. Rest of the course. Reading: EK, Chapter, 1 (also skim Chapters 3-5). Jackson, Chapter 1. 2
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Networks: Lecture 1 Introduction Introduction What are networks? Why study networks? Which networks and which commonalities? Which tools? Networks are a representation of interaction structure among units. In the case of social and economic networks, these units ( nodes ) are individuals or firms. At some broad level, the study of networks can encompass the study of all kinds of interactions. Information transmission. Web links. Information exchange. Trade. Credit and financial flows. Friendship. Trust. Spread of epidemics. Diffusion of ideas and innovation. 3
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Networks: Lecture 1 Introduction Visual Examples—1 Figure: The network structure of political blogs prior to the 2004 U.S. Presidential election reveals two natural and well-separated clusters (Adamic and Glance, 2005) Courtesy of Lada Adamic and Natalie Glance. Used with permission. Figure 1 in Adamic, Lada, and Natalie Glance. "The Political Blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. Election: Divided They Blog." In International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Link Discovery, Chicago, Illinois, 2005. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2005, pp. 36-43. ISBN-13: 9781595932150. ISBN-10: 1595932151. 4
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Networks: Lecture 1 Introduction Visual Examples—2 Figure: The social network of friendships within a 34-person karate club provides clues to the fault lines that eventually split the club apart (Zachary, 1977) Adapted from Figure 1 (p. 456) in Zachary, Wayne W. "An Information Flow Model for Conflict and Fission in Small Groups." Journal of Anthropological Research 33, no. 4 (1977): 452-473. 5
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Networks: Lecture 1 Introduction Visual Examples—3 Figure: The network of loans among financial institutions can be used to analyze the roles that different participants play in the financial system, and how the interactions among these roles affect the health of individual participants and the system as a whole. ( Bech and Atalay 2008) Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Figure 9 in Bech, Morten L., and Enghin Atalay. "The Topology of the Federal Funds Market." European Central Bank Working Paper Series No. 986, December 2008. ( PDF ) # 6
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Networks: Lecture 1 Introduction Visual Examples—4 Figure: The web link structure centered at http://web.mit.edu (touchgraph) 7
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