Unit 9 Music Notes.docx - Unit 9 Music Notes Romantic Era...

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Unit 9 Music Notes Romantic Era – piano = music for home & salon Piano = melody & harmony As pianos became more affordable, every aspiring middle-class home in the 19th century had to have a piano, both for family enjoyment and as a status symbol Mozart &Beethoven piano concerto’s Franz Liszt Hungarian Rhapsodies (preferred Chickering) Piano = 3-pedal, 88key, 1200 lb grand Industrial Revolution 1760-1880 Square piano – 1760 Johannes Zumpe (London) **Weak tone**, hammers same size, Full iron frame piano – 1825 Alpheus Babcock ** bad tonal qualities ** but, fuller, grander tones *Mozart didn’t need to exceed 5 octaves & Beethoven 1803 1818 – Beethoven exceeds 6 octaves 1820’s – piano with felt covered hammers (no leather) to “sing” mellow tone and “ping” Chickering – first American piano company Boston 1823 1856 – Henry Steinway – NY – started making piano 1859 – patent “cross-stringing” – richer sound 1860 – factory entire block in Manhattan 1900 – ½ worlds pianos from America; five largest manufacturers were all American 1920’s – upright and grand pianos Character pieces – free, short forms; replaced rondo, sonata
*project melodious and dramatic moods in compact form Titles: “Prelude” “intermezzo” “impromptu” “nocture” free improvisational forms ***dance music and produced keyboard versions of the Polish mazurka and polonaise, the Viennese waltz, and the lively scherzo Nineteenth-century composers Schubert, Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Brahms were all masters of the short piano piece who showed inexhaustible ingenuity in exploring the technical resources of the piano and its potential for expression. We will consider music by

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