Unformatted text preview: utbreaks of waterborne disease. In the final toll, 2,300 people became ill and seven people died. A cattle farm adjacent to the primary pumping well was identified as the most probable cause of the outbreak. 13 Manure and Nutrient Management (Walkerton Problem) The Dutch Tradable Manure Quota
In 1986, the Dutch government introduced manure production quotas. These quotas were allocated to livestock farms and were calculated on two bases: the number of animals present on the farm on 31 December 1985, and the area of agricultural land work by the farm. Since the quotas were introduced, livestock farms could not produce more manure than they had manure production quota. If a farm wished to expand its stock it had to buy more agricultural land (and therefore the 125kg/ha quota attached to it, or more quota by itself). Some geographic restrictions on quota trading. 14 The Dutch Tradable Manure Quota Problems: Too much quota A buy-out scheme was also implemented in the Netherlands in 2000-2001 to further reduce the total numbers of livestock by financing the exit of livestock farmers. It is anticipated that this buyout scheme will reduce the Dutch manure surplus by about one third. Didn t encourage innovation in managing manure because it was based on the number of animals not the amount of manure (or pollutants). Other alternatives An excess manure tax. South Nation Program (near Ottawa)-Nutrient Management South Nation Conservation (a non-profit group) provides grants to farmers for phosphorus reduction and sells them to regulated dischargers (e.g., municipalities that would otherwise have to upgrade their treatment plants) 15 Nutrient Trading (US) Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/ 2008/09/ocean-dead-zone.html Hypoxia (seasonal reduction of oxygen in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico), is caused by nutrient pollution, primarily nitrogen, which is believed to come mostly from agricultural sources. Depletion of oxygen in the water column kills bottomdwelling organisms and drives mobile marine life from the area. Nutrient trading (Nitrogen) has been proposed to deal with this. (Municipal or Industrial emitters, who face stricter regulations can pay farmers to reduce nitrogen emissions in run-off) Reverse Auctions-Pennsylvania Cost effective approach: Paying Farmers to implement best management practices to reduce phosphorous or nitrogen run-off. Farmers bid the price the are willing to take to change their practices to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus run-off. 16...
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- Spring '14
- air quality, health risk, Air Quality Health, AQHI, quality health index