Ch 7 and 8 Air Pollution, Ch 9 Water and Water Pollution large

8 4 ch 8 mobile source air pollution three main

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Unformatted text preview: urce Air Pollution Three Main Externalities from Vehicles. 1. Pollution from emissions. 2. Traffic Congestion 3. Accidents: the cost of insurance goes up when you have an accident, but the social costs of the accident are not all born by the driver causing the accident. (Driving and cell phones debate). 9 Regulating Automobile Emissions Who to regulate: Owners /drivers or the manufacturer? Existing Regulations regulate emissions through the manufacturer. Manufacturers must maintain fleet averages for emissions per kilometre driven over a range of vehicles. But this doesn t affect where and when the car is driven, or how many kilometres it is driven. Only new cars must meet the standard. If new cars are more expensive because of this, people will hold on to older, more polluting cars. Other Approaches Fuel regulations-no lead in gasoline-US Lead Trading Progrram was used to phase out lead. There was a decreasing cap on gasoline and refiners could trade within that cap. Buy back programs-to get clunkers off the road. Have to watch that people aren t buying clunkers from outside the jurisdiction, just to take advantage of the program. 10 5 Urban Pollution and Congestion Control Strategies Mexico City license plate regulation. 11 Singapore, London: Congestion Charges London s Congestion Charge The charge applies to driving in central London and is currently active between 7:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Monday to Friday excluding Public Holidays. The scheme is policed by cameras on roads within the congestion zone which read car registration plates. Drivers Pay 10 per day by telephone, text message, post, internet or in person at a retail outlet. It is also possible to pay up to midnight the day after the travel, although the charge is then increased to 10. Drivers are also able to purchase daily, weekly monthly or annual passes. . And there are discounts for buying in advance: monthly pass holders get three days free, yearly pass holders receive 40 days free. Electric vehicles free and plug in. In...
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This document was uploaded on 03/31/2014.

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