Ch 7 and 8 Air Pollution, Ch 9 Water and Water Pollution large

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Unformatted text preview: Personal communication. Hidy, G., Pennell, Journal of the Air and Waste W. (2010, June). Multipollutant Air Quality Management. Management Association, (60), 645. Page 1 of 1 3 1 Aggregate Emissions Cap versus Ambient Cap Do Emissions from different sources affect ambient pollution at a receptor differently? e1 (tonnes) a1=1 e2 (tonnes)_ a2=2 A1+A2=A e1a1+e2a2=A This can complicate emissions trading, as all emissions are not the same. A=ambient concentration at receptor (ppm). Damage is a function of A rather than emissions. 3 Emissions Trading Programs European Union Emission Trading System U.S. Acid Rain Program RECLAIM-Southern California- Smog Trading Ontario: Small SO2 Nox trading program Alberta Small SO2 Nox trading program for electric utilities Greenhouse gas emitters: trading and offsets with a price cap. Western Climate Initiative: Arizona, BC, California, Manitoba, Montana, Ontario, Oregon, Quebec, Utah, Washington 4 2 A Hybrid Approach MACA MAC A Combination/Hybrid: Tax (price cap) used only if permit price would other wise be too high. Helps reduce the cost of being wrong. t t 0 Agg Emissions CAP 5 Emission Taxes Not too much worry about whether the tax is set at the efficient level Canada: B.C. and Quebec have carbon taxes Alberta has an emissions intensity cap with trading and a price cap of $15. France-revenues used to subsidize installation of abatement equipment. Japan-used to compensate victims-medical expenses, lost earning etc. Norway Stat Oil- Incentive for Carbon Capture and Storage. Sweden tax on large energy sources-intended to cut emissions. Revenue returned based on energy production-has encouraged biofuels (tax not levied on biofuels or peat). Australia 23 Australian dollars (US$23.50) per carbon ton, increasing 2.5% annually until 2015 before changing to a cap and trade system. 6 3 BC Carbon Tax 7 Other Approaches Canada s approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions includes stricter regulations for new coal fired power plants and those that have reached the end of their useful life. 8 4 Ch 8 Mobile So...
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