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Lecture Notes_1-2_Semiconductors_2014

Conductors are a and b insulators have a large energy

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Unformatted text preview: energy level actually has two states. We fill the energy levels with electrons from the bottom band up. (C) Conductors do not have band gaps so that electrons in the partially billed band (conduction band) can easily move to an empty state. Conductors are (a) and (b). Insulators have a large energy band gap (c). All of the energy levels in the valence band are filled with electrons. These electrons cannot move in the band because there are no empty states. The band gap is large, ~ 4 eV or more. At absolute zero, electrons fill all of a band (valence band) of semiconductors, but at finite temperature, like room temperature, some of these electrons gain (absorb) enough thermal energy and are excited to the upper band (conduction band) because the band...
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