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The values given on the ordinates in terms of

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Unformatted text preview: frequency of the band, as measured in masking experiments that manipulate the bandwidth of the masker. The lower curve gives the bandwidths calculated from the critical ratio, as in figure 4.25. (From Greenwood, 1961a.) Courtesy of MIT Press. Used with permission. kHz 4 M n ado A 2- L4aift-cT - 3 r-1 - = - 2 C = o 1 e y ae -t- o o FORMANT OF REFERENCE MEAN MATCHED F2 u VOWEL Figure 4.34 The horizontal lines give the first four formant frequencies of a set of Swedish vowels used in a matching experiment. The boxes show the mean frequency of the second formant (F2') of a two-formant stimulus that gave a best match to the full vowel. Fl of the two-formant matching stimulus was set to Fl of the vowel. (From Carlson et al, 1970.) Courtesy of MIT Press. Used with permission. D CM&M'V0V,)&J e DChhtSb FREQUENCY Figure 4.32 Schematization of the spectrum envelope of a two-formant sound used in the matching experiments of Chistovich and Lublinskaya (1979). The frequency spacing Fb - Fa and the relative amplitudes of the spectral prominences were manipulated. Courtesy of MIT Press. Used with permission. F' kHz 1.5 10 iiIaxv 0.5 0 I II I I I I I I I I I C* I's 1.5 --------- ---------------------------- __ __ ____ ------__ _ 1.0 0.5 0 _I -20 I -10 - I I I I 0 10 20 30 dB _I -30 I -20 I -10 I 0 I 10 I 20 dB Figure 4.33 Results of the matching experiments in which the frequency P of a one-formant vowel is adjusted to match a two-formant vowel. The spacing between the two formant frequencies (shown by dashed lines) is less than 3.5 bark for the left column and more than 3.5 bark for the right column. The points give the mean and a measure of variability for the judgments as a function of the relative amplitude A2/Ai of the formant peaks for two subjects: L.C. (top) and VL. (bottom). (From Chistovich and Lublinskaya, 1979.) Courtesy of MIT Press. Used with permission. -------- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ - -3 ­ LO CO i t) E a, o E I0 Cn E CD 'F: ­ 40 Co c, oQ 0.. c C) CL 0C) C ) wn . 1 cj 0 000 ) 0 o X L-.I I (ZH) (9P) dVJV O3Hd _~~~~~I__ ~~~~~~~~~~~ I~~~~C~~~~~I~~~~~C~~~~~ __ I1_~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~E 0 ~ ~ ~ ­ LO CO C C C C a E) a) C C O 0 T C C C c. *1* I Cl C Co Co CM ,U) E L/ 2 0 I: E C .. C C' n '-a c c 09 c CD LL C) 0­ or) -j I w -j C:) o L--j , (]P) dWV (ZHl) 03-1 ----------�-s�--- O � U C) to cn u) CL2 LL~ 1 . E aM c >.Si 't 'It r · E · · l ; i p­ I I - (, ll I I I f 1 I , (-41 N C, 0) - E 0 o It Irl", IC C, co N I 4­ w Lo LL r -. cu cr I k r I o O) C) C) a _ I., C x -i C ,­ CL Co a) U) t8P) DW Nm Nm 14) LO .o cl, Q~ c\ II cn 6 11 0c c1 0E . LL C CB i Co .. * CO " L c) E e, (1) N CM o o C) o 11 F N LO cnO 11,u 4­ 4 2r L1 CO ,...-- C) - _. -~ ct -i C _ o) =,~ i -) (gP) DVNV C) (D E U- 0 N 0 0 __ I 9 CD _ _ I a. v, (BP) !DVW a) 6 LO cn n COU) LL Ucl , E ' It' '.D F N'MO .O >: ) -D co / _!~~~I -a I i O ¢ N E w O0 LL I w \1 =5 r o6 O O IN a) o u) Cl (BP) !WvvI LO to c) cO E LJ oI E o 0 0) o 00 a: Q n c o ._. a) .. U) (0 n X :3 a ',, a) ) 0') 0 u -J v --------------- ----- --- ��- LO C3) LO CO (b E U0 E LO t­ O 0 4-. Ol o 0 0) I4­ 0 n- cr 1.7 cu a) LU a) a) x 4- 0) a) 4­ x 0 a) w_ le, a. 0) 0Y to CO x a) LO CO cn E E CM] oo 0 C' 0 D. o0 (D1 .. a) 0) a cn oi 0 w 3 a) cn de tpJ UvtVW IV 0 o .4­ 3 x a) Gr...
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This document was uploaded on 03/19/2014 for the course EECS 6.541J at MIT.

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