AP WORLD CHAPTER 6.pdf - Chapter 6 An Age of Empires Rome...

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Chapter 6: An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China6.1: Rome’s Creation of a Mediterranean Empire, (753 BCE-330 BCE)Group of travelers claiming they’re envoys from Andun (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus),king of Da Qin, arrived at the court of Emperor Huan, in 166 BCEFirst Romans to reach ChinaMost likely were merchants who wanted to establish tradeChina and Rome linked through far-flung international trading networks; barely knew ofeach other’s existenceLocation of Rome was crucial to its success in unifying Italy and the lands around theMediterranean SeaSicily constitute and Italian peninsula created a “natural bridge” linking Europeand AfricaLaid at the midpoint of the peninsulas; Tiber River and seven hills created naturalprotectionMediterranean climate allows for a long growing season for crops6.1a: A Republic of Farmers, 753-31 BCEAgriculture essential to the economic activity in the early Roman stateBasis of wealthMost Romans were self-sufficient farmersSocial status, political privilege and fundamental values based on land ownership“Council of Elders”Played a dominant role in the politics of the Roman state7 kings of Rome between 753 and 507 BCEFirst Romulus, last Tarquinius SuperbusThe Republic507-31 BCENot a common Democracy; sovereign power reside in an Assembly of malecitizens where vores of the wealthy class accounted for more than the rest of thepopulationA slate of officials chosen each yearThe SenateCenter of powerAdvisory counsel to the kings first, then to the Republican officialsMembers served for life, brought together the state’s wealth, influence andpolitical/military experiencePatricians (Conflict of the Orders)Result of the inequalities in Roman societyMajority of the population were PlebiansPublication of the laws on 12 stone tablets
Tribunes: drawn from non elite classes and could veto/block actions of theAssemblyBasic unit of Roman society was familyPaterfamilias: (oldest living male in the household)Exercised absolute authorityPatient-client Relationship: fundamental societal relationship which the patron (wealthyand powerful) provided legal and economical protection to clientsRoman WomenHad no public roleNearly all info pertains to the upper classesSeen as a child; under authority of herpaterfamilias,and under thepaterfamiliasof her husband’s family once she marriedCouldn’t own property or represent herself in legal proceedingsGained more protection and economic freedom as time went onPax deorum: “peace of the gods”Covenant between the gods and Roman statePriests performed sacrifices, gods supported undertakings of Roman state6.1b: Expansion in Italy and the MediterraneanExpansion peaked in 3rd and 2nd centuries BCEAttributed the expansion to greed and aggressiveness of people fond of warKey to Roman expansion was the armyAll males with certain amount of land subjected to serveEquipment was similar to the Greek

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