I casual reasoning tries to establish the

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Unformatted text preview: rsuasive speakers often use casual reasoning. i. Casual reasoning tries to establish the relationship between (Me$ and f n. Speakers should follow two guidelines when using casual reasoning. 1. They should avoid the fallacy of the false cause. a. This fallacy is often known by its Latin name, ]?<&t VlOL ' which means " ~ yvnytfY V10L S , Tlierefore Because of this. b. Speakers who commit this fallacy assume that because one event comes after of the second. another, the first event must necessarily be ~he (CH2Se 2. Speakers should also avoid the fallacy of ().~\JVY\\Y\~ that events have only one cause. \fec\s Orfif r a. Most events have Sevevq.\ _auses. c 1 O\leV5VV1 \\~ @ Speakers need Jsj be wary ofO ~~ n ·complex caufes o~~ributing a CO Yl'\ QLt '1. ~ffect to a single cause. ) f. Persuasive speakers often use OYP.b~ CO reasoning. i. C\V)&\ \ reasoning compa s two yY) l ItA rcases to draw the conclusion that what is true i one case will also be true in the other. 11 . The most important guideline for speakers using analogical reasoning is to make sure the two cases being compared are essentially al \ 1. If the cases being compared are essentially alike, the analogy is \/A\ \ 2. If the cases being compared are not essentially alike, the analogyAs -~ ltd e ardless of the method of reasoning they use, speakers must guard against Q I _ Vlf 7 ~~(fA.\ Llf in their presentations. . i. Three of those fallacies, as we saw earlier, are hastyQiV\JYO 111ft ,. false Call;P, , and invalid Q YYA I~ l 11. Five additional fa'H'acres are drscussed here. 1. The tee:) n~ fallacy introduces an irrelevant issue in order to divert attention from the subject der discussion. 2. The [). YutYttV\0 fallacy substitutes an attack on the person for discussion of the real issue to dispute. 3. The e\...{\' I - 1 fallacy, sometimes referred to as the false Q, \ f>i{YlY"l'P\ forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist. 4. The \:lA.ID~ fallacy assumes that because som...
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