Beyond this illuminating role determining the

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Unformatted text preview: rms. The study of inter-species sequence comparisons is important for identifying functional elements in the genome (see Grand Challenge I-1). Beyond this illuminating role, determining the sequence differences between species will provide insight into the distinct anatomical, physiological and developmental features of different organisms, will help to define the genetic basis for speciation and will facilitate the characterization of mutational processes. This last point deserves particular attention, because mutation both drives long-term evolutionary change and is the underlying cause of inherited disease. The recent finding that mutation rates vary widely across the mammalian genome11 raises numerous questions about the molecular basis for these evolutionary changes. At present, our understanding of DNA mutation and repair, including the important role of environmental factors, is limited. Genomics will provide the ability to substantively advance insight into evolutionary variation, which will, in turn, yield new insights into the dynamic nature of genomes in a broader evolutionary framework. Grand Challenge I-5 D e v e l o p p o li c y o p t i o n s t h a t f a c ili t a t e t h e w i d e s p re a d u s e o f g e n o m e i n f o r m a t i o n i n b o t h re s e a rc h a n d c li n i c a l s e t t i n g s Realization of the opportunities provided by genomics depends on effective access to the BOX 4 Training M e e tin g t h e s c i e n tifi c , m e d i c a l a n d s o c...
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