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Even less is known about the function of the roughly

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Unformatted text preview: rotein-coding genes and the sequence determinants of chromosome dynamics. Even less is known about the function of the roughly half of the genome that consists of highly repetitive sequences or of the remaining non-coding, non-repetitive DNA. The next phase of genomics is to catalogue, characterize and comprehend the entire set of functional elements encoded in the human and other genomes. Compiling this genome ‘parts list’ will be an immense challenge. Well-known classes of functional elements, such as protein-coding sequences, still cannot be accurately predicted from sequence information alone. Other types of known functional sequences, such as genetic regulatory elements, are even less well understood; undoubtedly new types remain to be defined, so we must be ready to investigate novel, perhaps unexpected, ways in which DNA sequence can confer function. Similarly, a better understanding of epigenetic changes (for example, methylation and chromatin remodelling) is needed to comprehend the full repertoire of ways in which DNA can encode information. Comparison of genome sequences from evolutionarily diverse species has emerg...
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