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Unformatted text preview: oning of specific
proteins and protein pathways will yield
important new insights about physiological
NATURE | VOL 422 | 24 APRIL 2003 | www.nature.com/nature processes in normal and disease states. An
enhanced ability to incorporate information
about genetic variation into human genetic
studies would usher in a new era for investigating the genetic bases of human disease and
drug response (see Grand Challenge II-1).
Grand Challenge I-4 U n d e rs t a n d
e v o l u t i o n a r y v a ri a t i o n a c ro s s s p e c i e s a n d
t h e m e c h a n i s m s u n d e rl y i n g i t
The genome is a dynamic structure, continually subjected to modification by the forces
of evolution. The genomic variation seen
in humans represents only a small glimpse
through the larger window of evolution,
where hundreds of millions of years of trialand-error efforts have created today’s bio- sphere of animal, plant and microbial species.
A complete elucidation of genome function
requires a parallel understanding of the
sequence differences across species and the
fundamental processes that have sculpted
their genomes into the modern-day fo...
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