bio exam review - BIO 101 General Biology 1 Fall 2007 Study...

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BIO 101: General Biology 1 Fall 2007 Study Questions for Final Exam: Chapters 18, 19, 16, & 24  Chapter 18: The Evolution of Animal Diversity Pages covered from text: pp. 370, 372-374 & 386-393;  Sections:  18.3-17, 18.15-21 Terms: 1. Ingestion- eating food and digesting it within one’s body 2. Radial- can split in half and get a mirror image in a number of ways 3. bilateral symmetry- the only way to split in half (and get a mirror image) is by dividing down the midline. 4. Tissues – ectoderm- outer (skin), endoderm- inner (intestines) and mesoderm- middle (muscles) Concepts: 1. Definition of animals- eukaryotic, multicellular organisms that obtain nutrients by ingestion . 2. What were the first animals? What are vertebrates? a. Sponges/ have backbones 3. Be able to identify some of the major “jumps” in animal evolution – jaws, lungs, legs, amniotic egg, & milk. 4. What are the two distinguishing characteristics of mammals? a. Hair and mammary glands Chapter 19: Human Evolution Pages covered from text – pp. 400-408,  Sections:  19-1-12 Terms: 1. Primates – prosimians and anthropoids 2. Hominids – Homo habilis- used simple tools , Homo erectus - upright , Homo sapiens Concepts: 1. What are the 5 distinguishing features of primates? a. Limber shoulder and hip joints b. Dexterous hands c. Great sensitivity in hands and feet to touch d. Eyes close together on the front of face e. Very attentive to caring for young What are the three major milestones in human evolution? 1. Bipedal posture – walking upright evolved in early hominids, before larger brain. 2. Increase brain size – our brain is roughly 3 times larger than early hominids. 3. Key changes in family structures. 2. What are the three stages of human culture? Scavenging, agriculture, machinery Chapter 16: The Evolution of Microbial Life Pages covered from text – pp. 322-325; 329-331:  Sections:  16.1, 16.7-16 Terms: 1. Prokaryotes – nucleoid region, bacterial cell wall, capsule, pili- helps stick and adhere to hide from immune system and flagella- helps it move 2. Shapes of bacteria: bacilli, cocci and spirochetes 3. Pathogens 4. Toxins: Exotoxins / Endotoxins / Biological weapons 5.
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