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Even though time needed for one memory access is tripled, caching
permits performance to remain reasonable.
Suppose TLB access time is 20 ns, 100 ns to memory (no parallelism)
Cache hit rate of 98 percent yields:
effective access time = 0.98 x 120 + 0.02 x 320
= 124 nanoseconds.
which is only a 24 percent slowdown in memory access time.
Can add more page tables and can show that slowdown grows slowly:
3-level: 26 %
4-level: 28% Inverted
Inverted Page Table
Page table size is based on size of logical address space – this can be
very large and bigger than the actual memory consumed by a process Problem:
Problem: may need a worst-case page table size to accommodate the
*possibility* that a process accesses any and all addresses within its
virtual address space and do this for many processes!
Instead let the page table entries map directly each real page of memory
only 1 page table in the system to map all of physical memory Inverted
Inverted Page Table (cont’d)
PTE consists of the virtual address of the page stored in that
real memory location, with information about the process
that owns that page: <pid, page-number>
VA: <pid, page-number, offset>
Decreases memory needed to store each page table, but
increases time needed to search the table when a page
Use hash table to limit the search to one — or at most a few
— page-table entries.
Better yet use a TLB caching scheme Inverted
Inverted Page Table Architecture How to guarantee unique pid?
Less compatible with virtual memory (expensive to
learn that a page is not allocated) Shared
• One copy of read-only (reentrant) code shared among
processes (i.e., text editors, compilers, window systems,
shared libraries) Private code and data
• Each process keeps a separate copy of the code and data Shared
Shared Pages Example Segmentation
Memory-management scheme that supports user view of memory.
A program is a collection of segments.
A segment is a logical unit such as:
local variables, global variables,
symbol table Logical
Logical View of Segmentation
3 user space physical memory space Segmentation
Logical address consists of a two tuple:
Segment table – maps physical addresses; each table entry has:
• base – contains the starting physical add...
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- Summer '14
- Operating Systems, Virtual memory, page table, allocated memory