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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics Qualitative Method Involves collecting information that cannot be subjected to numerical measurements. Focuses on a small number of cases and entails intensive interviews with people or in-depth analysis of historical materials. A researcher carefully examines a specific event (case study) and attempts to provide a description of how or why the event occurred Quantitative method Focuses on gathering data that represents quantities of some phenomenon and involves measuring data on a numerical scale Goes beyond description and looks for causes and reasons Uses surveys and experiments to determine accuracy of a theory, support or refute an explanation, or build and extend theories Descriptive Statistics When one or two numbers are used to organize and summarize a set of data in a form that is easy to comprehend Looks to involve some goal of description Inferential Statistics Goes beyond a description to make inferences about a population based on data gathered from a sample Chapter II Collecting and Measuring Data Field Research Field Research involves the study of people in natural settings It is a sophisticated form of people watching Is used whenever a researcher wants to learn something that can only be studied through direct involvement and close, detailed observation Valuable for exploratory and descriptive studies Content Analysis An approach for analyzing the content of written, visual, or spoken material The researcher identifies the material to be analyzed and creates a coding system for recording it Is a quantitative research method Surveys The most frequently conducted of all quantitative research method The large group of people in which a researcher is ultimately interested in is the population The best way to accomplish researching is to survey a subset or sample A random sample is chosen in such a way that data collected from those members of the sample are representative of all members of the population. Experiment Quantitative method aimed at discovering cause-and-effect relationships They are restricted to questions in which the researcher can control all variables and manipulate only specific aspects of the situation One group receives a stimulus and the other receives a treatment A variable is anything that has more than one level or can assume multiple values The dependent variable is what the result of the study is measured by Measurement Measurement is the process of assigning numbers to objects in such a way that properties of the objects are reflected in the numbers themselves The nominal scale uses numbers to classify or categorize objects, people, or characteristics...
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course AS AM 1 taught by Professor Zhao during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.
- Fall '08