Unformatted text preview: letter or number formation • Pencil holders that guide young children’s fingers to the correct way
to hold a pencil. 11 • Partially worked out math problem on the top of a practice sheet when
students are first practicing a new math skill. • A worksheet with editing marks that students can refer to when they
are first learning to edit their papers. Behaviorists recommend that teachers provide considerable environmental
support in the form of prompts when students are learning a new behavior. As
learners become more comfortable with a behavior, the prompts should be faded
or removed gradually so that students do not become dependent on the prompts.
Feedback. Feedback is evaluative data provided to students to improve or
maintain their level of performance (Schloss & Smith, 1994). To a behaviorist
feedback can be reinforcement for correct responses, or a mild aversive stimulus
for incorrect responses. For example, a computerized drill and practice program
might respond with, “Good job!” when students give a correct answer, or “ Not
quite right. Try again!” when students give an incorrect answer. Because behaviorists emphasize the reinforcing...
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- Spring '08
- Educational Psychology, Instructional Technique