16 programmed learning programmed learning is a self

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Unformatted text preview: learning was reflected initially in the development of programmed learning beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, and later in the design of drill and practice programs. 16 Programmed Learning Programmed learning is a self-teaching approach based on behavioral principles that allows students to learn at different rates (Hefzallah, 1999; Schunk, 2000). It is designed in accordance with the following guidelines (Cruthirds & Hanna, 1997; Hefzallah, 1999; Keirns, 1999; Skinner, 1958, 1980) • Specific objectives are established for the content to be learned. • Information is presented in small pieces or steps called frames. For example, a series of facts would be presented one at a time. Very often, the frames include prompts that help students produce a correct response. • Students are provided with immediate feedback. For example, if students answer a factual question, they are told if their answers are correct or incorrect immediately. • Students must actively respond by writing an answer to a question or selecting the correct response from a list. Skinner preferred students to make an overt response rather...
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