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Unformatted text preview: effects of feedback, their guidelines for
effective feedback are very similar to their guidelines for effective use of
First, effective feedback should immediately follow the occurrence of the
target behavior. The importance of immediate or at least timely feedback has been
supported by research on instructional feedback. For most typical classroom tasks,
teachers should provide feedback as soon as they can (Kulik & Kulik, 1988). 12 Providing immediate feedback to a large number of students can be challenging,
but technology may be able to help with this problem. For example, web-based
homework can be combined with a feedback database that provides students with
feedback about their answers, and an opportunity to re-try (Hall, et al., 2001).
Second, feedback should be scheduled like reinforcement. Learners should
have ample opportunity for feedback when they are first learning, then the
opportunities for feedback can be reduced once the behavior is established. This is
essentially an application of the schedules of reinforcement idea from Chapter 2.
Instructional feedback as information. Subsequent research on
instructional feedback also suggests that feedback...
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- Spring '08