For example a young student with a severe speech

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Unformatted text preview: e some precursor or approximation of a behavior. For example, a young student with a severe speech delay may not be able to say his name, “Tom,” but he can make a “t” sound. The speech therapist might shape this behavior by initially accepting ‘t” for the student’s name and then gradually expecting the child to get closer to the complete pronunciation. More typically, students may be able to produce a behavior, but need to improve the accuracy, frequency, duration, or speed of the behavior. For example, one of your students may make a number of mechanical errors in writing. You could shape this student’s editing behavior by requiring this student to reduce the number of his mechanical errors in order to earn full grade credit in this area. In an elementary school, you might use a shaping procedure to set speed goals for simple math calculations. In this case, students need to increase gradually the number of simple addition problems they solve correctly in a given amount of time to meet their goals. Chaining as an Instructional Technique A behavioral chain is a series of...
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