For example novices might benefit from instruction

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Unformatted text preview: neous information or unneeded processes for the learning goal are included in the instruction. • Germane cognitive load results from the additional cognitive effort learners expend to create deeper constructions of information or automatize schemata. In general, teachers should try to eliminate extrinsic load, and should help novice students cope with the demands of intrinsic and germane load. For example, novices might benefit from instruction that first presents the individual elements of a complicated task, and then provides a whole task presentation (Pollock, Chandler, & Sweller, 2002). Also, students may need time during instruction to consolidate what they are learning. Here are some additional ideas for managing cognitive load. • When presenting information, pause periodically to allow students time to process what you are saying. • Provide students with slot outlines for note taking. A slot outline is an outline with some of the ideas omitted. Students fill in the missing ideas. • Provide students with cue cards when they are practicing a new skill and ample practice with new skills. 33 • Limit the number of important points you include in a presentation. • When providing complicated definitions, present them in pieces or chunks....
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