Unformatted text preview: udents learn the • desired behaviors?
How will students’ progress toward learning the desired behaviors be • measured?
The skills and knowledge necessary to answer these questions will be presented
over the next few chapters. In this chapter, we focus on how principles 2.2 and
2.3 generate teaching applications that can help your students learn specific
Principle 2.2: Learning Occurs Gradually and Step-by-Step.
Behaviorists take a part-to-whole perspective on learning, which means
that complicated or unfamiliar behaviors need to be learned gradually or step-bystep. As you remember from Chapter 2, Skinner’s (1953) techniques of shaping
and chaining are used for this purpose.
Shaping as an Instructional Technique
Shaping is defined as reinforcing gradual improvement toward a terminal
goal. It can be used to teach brand new behaviors or to improve the quality of
existing behaviors (Zirpoli & Melloy, 1997). 7 In some cases students may not be able to produce a desired behavior, but
may be able to produc...
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- Spring '08
- Educational Psychology, Instructional Technique