Unformatted text preview: he end of the chapter) we have listed a
number of ways in which teachers can provide scaffolding or guidance. As you
can see from Table 7.3 (appears at the end of the chapter), scaffolding involves a
full range of instructional techniques including cueing, modeling, and providing
emotional and cognitive support.
Cooperative learning is when students work together to accomplish shared
goals that both benefit the group as a whole and the individual members of the
group (Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1994). It can be viewed as both an
instructional strategy and as a way to build a shared sense of community among
students (Adams & Hamm, 1996). As an instructional strategy, cooperative
learning can be used to implement the principles of many different learning 54 theories. However, the idea of community building through cooperative learning
seems particularly well matched to the social constructivist idea of distributed
expertise that was presented to you in Chapter 5.
Characteristics of effective cooperative learning. According to Johnson
& Johnson (1994), effe...
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- Spring '08
- Educational Psychology, Instructional Technique