Unformatted text preview: rting their improvement over practice sessions (Binder, 1993; Spence &
Hively, 1993). In the reading decoding example, students can track their
improvement in reading rate over time.
Cognitive Theory and Intelligent Tutors
Many early forms of computer-assisted tutorials were unable to provide
the type of tailored instruction that is provided by effective tutors. As both 42 technology and cognitive theories of learning and performance evolved, tutorials
were designed that could be more responsive to students’ learning needs. These
tutorials became known as intelligent tutors (Newby, et al., 2000; Polson &
Intelligent tutors differ from the earlier tutorial programs in terms of the
knowledge that is encoded in the program (Burns & Capp, 1988; Kumer, Smith,
Helgeson, & White, 1994; Steele & Steele, 1999). Intelligent tutors contain expert
knowledge about the academic content to be taught, but they also store
information about students’ performance with the prog...
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- Spring '08
- Educational Psychology, Instructional Technique