42 principle 43 learners have the potential to self

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Unformatted text preview: e likely to attribute lack of success to insufficient effort, and cognitive strategies are likely to be see as useful for improving effort. If self-efficacy is extremely low, students may not see the value in adjusting their effort because they may believe they lack the ability to succeed. The implication is that we want students to develop the belief that if they use a more effective strategy, they can be successful (Alderman, 1990; Protheroe, 2002a, 2002b). This means that teachers need to help students identify effective strategies and reinforce students for using those strategies effectively. 42 Principle 4.3: Learners Have The Potential to Self-Regulate Their Own Learning Processes. From a social cognitive perspective, students self-regulate by establishing goals for their performance and by engaging in self-regulatory behaviors like monitoring and evaluating their performance. One source of the difference between successful and less successful learners is the ability to self-regulate (Biemiller & Meichenbaum, 1997; Protheroe, 2002a,b; Zimmerman, 2000). In order for students to transfer strategies appropriately, they need to identify the goal for an activity, select the appropriate strategy, and monitor their progress toward meeting their goal. In other words, they need to self-regulate Effective strategy instruction, therefore, should include instruction on how to self-regulate the use of that strategy (Belmont, Butterfield, & Ferretti, 1982). Teachers can describe when and why a strategy can be used, provide students with ways of monitoring their progress, and allow students to reflect on their strategy use through classroom discussions or journals. Constructivism Applied to Transfer Both constructivists and information-processing theorists would agree that knowledge is more likely to be transferred if that knowledge has been learned meaningfully. The constructivists, however, offer somewhat different suggestions for how to facilitate the meaningful learning of knowledge for the purposes of transfer. Their ideas can be organized around theoretical principles developed in Chapter 5. 43 Principle 5.1: Learning is More Powerful if Learners Actively Construct Their Own Understandings From a constructivist perspective, learning is more meaningful if students invent or discover key relationships or principles for themselves, rather than having principles or relationships explained to them by someone else. According to constructivists, invented knowledge is personally meaningful, more memorable, and more easily transferred to novel situations (Cobb, 1999; Gesi & Massaro, 1992; Ward, 2001). Research findings on the effectiveness of discovery learning methods for producing meaningful learning and transfer provide a somewhat mixed picture (De Jong & van Joolingen, 1998; Geal & Massaro, 1992; Kittel, 1957; Norton, 1977; Solter & Mayer, 1978). However, it is possible to conclude that when discovery learning is done well, it can produce the type of meaningful understanding that leads to transfer. There are, however, a number of factors that influence the success of discovery learning. First, all forms of discovery lea...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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