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Unformatted text preview: d/or objects in their environment.
A benchmark lesson is an activity in which the teacher or some outside expert
introduces a new topic or idea. The introduction of new information via an organized
presentation of an expert provides the learners with a framework within which to
organize their subsequent experiences. This approach is consistent with Principle 3.1, 51
Meaningful learning occurs when new knowledge is connected to existing
Motivation and Transfer
The commitment required by students to learn something well enough to transfer
it is often considerable, because they may need to be motivated enough to engage in the
types of activities that lead to meaningful understanding and transfer. Also, learners will
need to be motivated to apply what they have learned in order for transfer to occur.
Consequently, it is appropriate to think about how motivational principles might be
useful for creating those types and levels of motivation in students (Yamnil & McLean,
2001). It is also possible, however, to consider how activities designed to promote
learning for transfer might enhance students’ motivation to learn. For example, the types
of problem-solving and thinking activities that are associated with far and general transfer
could possibly increase students’ engagement in the learning processes. The principles
developed in Chapter 6 provide a useful context for discussing these motivational issues.
Principle 6.1: Learners Are More Motivated When They Believe Their Actions Will
Result in Successfully Completing Challenging Tasks.
One of the major implications of this principle is that students are motivated by
succeeding at moderately challenging tasks, and by attributing that success to their ability
and effort (Pintrich & Schunk, 2002). It is good to remember that students may find
requests to transfer what they have learned extremely challenging. We want to make sure
that we provide sufficient guidance and scaffolding to make transfer obtainable with
appropriate effort. For example, transfer often requires a meaningful understanding of 52
what has been learned. You will need to schedule sufficient time for this to occur, and
your choice of learning activities will need to engage students in meaningful processing
of information. Also, providing students with guidance about when they will use what
they have learned may make it more likely that they will be successful at transferring that
Students’ motivation to apply a strategy depends in part on their belief, or
expectancy that the strategy will be effective. To help students develop this awareness,
Snider and Pressley (1995) suggest that learners be taught and encouraged to monitor
their performance, generally and while applying learning strategies. In addition teachers
need to encourage students to make appropriate attributions by pointing out that effective
academic performances are the result of the correct selection and performance of learning
strategies. Also, you could reinforce students for the strat...
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- Spring '08