By showing that only this slight change transforms a

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Unformatted text preview: Application of the difference principle is represented in examples three through five of Figure 8.3. The only difference between examples three and four is that one line has been rotated slightly so that the lines are no longer parallel. By showing that only this slight change transforms a positive example to a negative example, the learner will expect that more drastic changes in the same dimension will also result in a negative example. Comparing example five with example four shows that changing the orientation of either line results in a negative example. Applying the difference principle will help the learners discriminate negative examples from positive examples. The Testing Principle. Examples six through eleven of Figure 8.3 show the testing principle. Note that the first example tested, example six is also only minimally different from the negative example presented in example five. Each example tests learners’ ability to generalize (transfer) the concept to different situations. From the examples presented in Figure 8.3 you might think that this technique is only useful when teaching simple concepts, but examples may also be used to teach cognitive problem-solving routines and complex factual relationships (Engelman and Carnine, 1991). Typically problem-solving and reasoning activities can be organized as a sequence of steps. The objective then becomes to teach each step of the sequence. As the learners achieve a degree of mastery for separate steps the steps are combined with other until the entire sequence is mastered. Information Processing Approaches to Enhancing Transfer From a cognitive perspective, transfer would involve the application of previously learned knowledge. As you remember from Chapter 3, the two major forms of knowledge 18 are declarative and procedural knowledge. These two types of knowledge potentially provide these four possible forms of transfer from a cognitive perspective (Brooks & Dansereau, 1987; Singley & Anderson, 1989) 1) Students could transfer previously learned declarative knowledge to help them acquire new declarative knowledge. In schools this often involves the application of content learned earlier in a course or in a previous course to the learning of new declarative knowledge. For example, students might apply their knowledge of the Bill of Rights in learning about censorship 2) Students could transfer previously learned declarative knowledge to help them apply or learn procedural knowledge. This would happen when concepts or information students have previously learned help them acquire or apply a skill, such as knowledge of place value helping students develop a meaningful understanding of math procedures (Ho & Cheng, 1997). 3) Students could transfer previously learned procedural knowledge to the learning of or application of new procedural knowledge. For example, students may use previously learned math skills in a higher-level math course. 4) Students could transfer previously learned procedural knowledg...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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