However one of the concerns with situating the

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Unformatted text preview: is perspective has been critiqued on the grounds of both research and anecdotal evidence to the contrary. There are multiple examples of knowledge being transferred outside of the situation in which it was acquired (Anderson, Reder, & Simon, 1997; Moore, 1998). A second perspective on transfer is that situating learning in context enhances the possibility of teaching students transferable cognitive strategies and skills (Hendricks, 2001). From this perspective, it would be argued that because students are actively learning by doing and because the classroom imitates real-world application settings, transfer of the learned strategies or skills to real-world settings is more likely. However, one of the concerns with situating the learning of skills and strategies in a particular context is that the learning may become too closely associated with that context. The potential problem is that if the learning is overly contextualized, learners may fail to transfer that learning to relevant but somewhat dissimilar contexts (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Griffin, 1995). For example if strategies are associated with the solution of a particular problem in a particular setting, they may not be applied in different settings or with related but different problems. One of the ways to address this issue is to 48 vary the problem contexts used to introduce strategies to students so that they can see how these strategies can transfer. A third perspective is that situating cognition allows students to understand the structures of participation for a particular social context that may transfer to other contexts (Greeno, 1997; Greeno, Moore, & Smith, 1993). For example, students may acquire understandings of the routines of collaborative work or how information is accessed during collaborative scientific research. As a result, students learn to be more successful participants in that context. These understandings would transfer to the extent that they are generally applicable to other contexts, or to the extent that they can be modified successfully for other contexts (Greeno, 1997). Both the goal of teaching transferable learning strategies and patterns of participation are present in the design of the Communities of Learners model, which is an example of both situated and distributed cognition. It provides a reasonable example of how transfer might be addressed from this perspective. Communities of learners and transfer. A community of learners is defined by a distribution of expertise among the community members (Brown and Campione, 1994). In other words, no one member of a group has all the knowledge and skills necessary to reach the group’s objectives. Learners and teachers must also acquire the necessary participation activities and structures to collaborate as problem-solvers. Additionally, another purpose for situating and distributing cognition in this model is to help students acquire transferable learning how to learn strategies. 49 The Community of Learners model has a number of parti...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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