In both cases how the problem is conceptualized is

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Unformatted text preview: blems as being soluble by the application of arithmetic, causes him to classify the problem as a situation requiring arithmetic operations. In both cases how the problem is conceptualized is dependent on the knowledge the learner brings to the problem situation. In other words the creation of the problem space depends on the process of transfer. Learning as an Example of Problem Solving Classroom learning can be viewed as an extremely important problem solving activity for students. Thinking about classroom learning as an exercise in problem 7 solving highlights the importance of transfer to the learning processes. As with all problem situations, the students’ perception of the goals and givens of the learning activity will be influenced by their previous experience with similar activities. For instance, students’ knowledge of how they will be assessed may influence how they perceive the goal of a learning activity and, therefore, what they actually think about and do while engaged in that learning activity. Learners who believe they are going to be assessed by a multiple-choice test may approach the particular learning activity differently than learners who believe they will be assessed by an essay examination. Likewise, learners’ knowledge of learning techniques and strategies will influence how they study. To learn successfully, learners must transfer what they know about themselves as learners, learning strategies, classroom dynamics, and the special requirements of various learning tasks to the current learning experience. Helping learners succeed requires that students acquire and transfer the types of metacognitive knowledge necessary to learn how to learn. To summarize, transfer affects performance in many situations. As we complete mundane, day-to-day activities, our performance is affected by the concepts and skills we have previously learned. When novelty or complexity causes us to categorize a situation as a problem, a successful solution will typically depend on our ability to transfer what knowledge and skills acquired from previous experiences. Finally when we are faced with a learning task, the way we approach the task and how well we learn will also be determined by our ability to transfer and apply our prior knowledge. In the remainder of this chapter, we will discuss how the theoretical principles presented in Chapters 2 through 6 may be applied to enhance transfer in and out of your classroom. 8 Behavioral Learning Theory and Transfer Behavioral views of transfer are primarily an application of Principle 2.3: Learning results from the effects of stimuli on responses. The goal is to create learning environments that increase the likelihood that students will emit a behavior when environments containing similar stimuli are encountered. Thorndike’s concept of identical elements and Engleman’s and Carnine’s work on inductive approaches to concept leaning provide examples of behavioral approaches to teaching for transfer...
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