Make sure students understand knowledge at a deep

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Unformatted text preview: ur class in appropriate and useful ways. • When possible, have students practice skills in the way they will need to use them. For example, have students practice decoding skills as they are reading for meaning. • When teaching for transfer, provide students with multiple examples of how a concept or skill applies in varying contexts For example, talk to your teaching colleagues and identify skills or strategies that can be used in different content areas. All of the involved teachers should introduce those skills or strategies in their content area. • Help students understand when and why they can apply what they are learning. For example, provide students specific guidance about when they should and when they should not use a cognitive strategy. • Make sure students understand knowledge at a deep conceptual level. Use the ideas we have discussed in this and previous chapters for encouraging meaningful processing of knowledge. Limit the use of rote learning approaches. 55 • . Distribute practice or learning experiences across time. For example, revisit knowledge you introduced earlier in the year, and if possible vary the practice context. Give students multiple opportunities to learn key knowledge. Study Guide Key Terms Transfer P# Positive examples Anagogic-problem P# Construction Problem solving P# Negative examples P# Explicit-strategy P# Instruction Problem Space P# Inductive teaching P# Structural schema Formal Discipline P# Juxtaposition P# Natural P# structural P# schema Mental Discipline P# Near Transfer Indentical elements P# Far Transfer P# Derived structural P# schema General Transfer P# Juxtaposition P# Goal-free problem P# statements Specific Transfer P# High-Road P# Algorithm P# P# Heuristic P# P# Reciprocal teaching P# Transfer Positive Transfer P# Negative Transfer P# Low-road Transfer 56 Reciprocal P# Cognitive context P# Cognitive Strategy Teaching Additional Readings Singley, M.K. and Anderson, J.R. (1989). The Transfer of Cognitive Skill. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA Web Activities Learning Strategies Database Additional Discussions of Transfer Chapter 8 Figures Figure 8.1 Sample Math Problem 57 At 6 P.M. The end of a shadow cast by a flagpole measures 70 feet from the base of a the flagpole. At the same time a mailbox casts a shadow 7 feet long. If the mailbox is 5 feet tall, how tall is the flagpole? 7 ft 70 ft 58 Figure 8.2. Effects of Stimulus and response similarity on transfer Is the stimulus of presented similar to that previously learned? NO YES No Tranfer (i.e. performance not affected) Transfer (i.e. performance affected) YES Is the appropriate response simlar to that previously learned? Positive Transfer (i.e. Performance Facilitated) NO Negative Transfer (i.e. Performance Inhibited) 59 Figure 8.3 A sequence of examples for teaching the concept “Parallel” Example 1 Model...
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