Presenting students with a derived structural schema

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Unformatted text preview: tural characteristics of situations are learned gradually and over a long period of time. A derived structural schema, is similar to a natural schema, in that it preserves structural relationships, but is different in being consciously derived, or produced by an expert. Presenting students with a derived structural schema helps them to learn deductively. Dansereau (1995) refers to derived structural schema as “generic analogs,” (p. 107) and suggests that teaching using derived structural schema, shares many of the advantages of teaching with analogies, while avoiding some of the disadvantages associated with variation in the learners’ prior knowledge. Figure 8.4 (appears at the end of the chapter) provides an example of a derived structural schema applied to the familiar electric circuit/plumbing analogy. The idea is 23 that the teacher, acting as the expert, creates a derived structural schema that represents a class of concepts or procedures that he or she will be teaching. The teacher then presents the derived schema to the learners as a concept map, list of questions, outline, or whatever form seems most appropriate for the subject being taught. The learners can then use the derived structural schema as a guide to organize and elaborate new information in a variety of learning activities. The derived structural schema presented in Figure 8.4 identifies five categories of structurally similar information that can be found in a variety of distribution systems. The five categories of information are: what, activators, routing, problems, and systems and can be remembered by the acronym WARPS. Figure 8.4 also shows two examples of the kind of information that might be placed in the categories for two different types of distribution systems. This same structural schema might be used to study transportation systems, information systems or market economies. Dansereau (1995) identifies five characteristics of good a structural schema, including: 1. Clear identification of important structural characteristics of the category in order to assist learners in identifying analogous attributes in new examples of the category. 2. The organization of the derived structural schema should be tailored to the anticipated uses in order to make its use as easy as possible. 3. Keep the number of characteristics of the Derived structural schema to seven or fewer to avoid overloading working memory. 4. The characteristics should be labeled in a meaningful way in order to aid the recall of the characteristics. 24 5. Memory aids such as Acronyms should be used when possible to help learners remember the characteristics of the category. Declarative Knowledge Transferred to Procedural Knowledge In 1908, Judd summarized an experiment that assessed the effects of principled understanding of a situation on performance. Figure 8.5 (appears at the end of the chapter) shows the general set up of the experiment two groups of boys practiced throwing darts at an underwater target. One group had been given an explanation of the concept of refraction of light through water, and how refraction distorts the apparent position of underwater objects, while the other group received no explanation of the refractive qualities of water. Initially both g...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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