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strategies eventually become internalized as cognitive strategies for the individual
Research on reciprocal teaching has generally supported it as an effective
instructional approach for improving students’ text comprehension (Palincsar & Brown, 40
1984; Rosenshine & Meister, 1994). There are some data to suggest, however, that the
effectiveness of reciprocal teaching can be improved by explicitly pre-teaching the
strategies before engaging students in the reciprocal teaching experiences (Rosenshine &
Social Cognitive Theory and Teaching for Transfer
In Chapter 4 we presented Bandura’s social-cognitive learning theory. The
principles, concepts, and strategies that have developed out of social cognitive theory
provide important additional perspectives on how students learn and transfer strategies to
self-regulate their learning.
Principle 4.1: Learners Acquire Important Knowledge, Behaviors, and Dispositions
Through Their Exposure to Models.
Both social cognitive theory and information-processing theory would see
considerable value in students learning transferable cognitive strategies. As mentioned in
previous sections, having access to successful models of those strategies is an important
component of different approaches to strategy instruction (Lapan, Kardach, & Turner,
2002; Snyder & Pressley, 1995). Because cognitive strategies are mental process, the
type of modeling that is well matched to strategy instruction is cognitive modeling.
Teachers would implement cognitive modeling by talking aloud as they execute a
strategy (Oster, 2001). They might also include statements that help students focus their
attention on important information about strategy by alerting students to common
mistakes in implementing a strategy. 41
Principle 4.2: Learners’ Self-Belief Systems Guide their Learning and their
Students’ self-beliefs influence their motivation to perform, to learn cognitive
strategies, and to transfer or apply what they have learned (Pressley, et al., 1989). From a
social cognitive perspective, self-efficacy is an extremely important self-belief. As you
remember form Chapter 4, self-efficacy is students’ belief about the likelihood of success
with effort. Self-efficacy and cognitive strategy instruction mutually influence each other.
First, Successful strategy instruction can help students develop more positive self-beliefs
(Casteel, Isom, & Jordan, 2000). If strategies lead to successful performance, then
students’ self-efficacy for those tasks may be enhanced.
Also, students’ willingness to learn and apply cognitive strategies is influenced by
their self-efficacy For example, self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ willingness to use
effective learning strategies and to discard faulty strategies that aren’t working (Collins,
1982; Schunk, 1996; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990). Also, self-efficacy can affect
students’ attributions for success (Bandura, 1993). In turn, students’ attributions can
impact on their willingness to be strategic. Students with high self-efficacy are mor...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08