Social cognitive theory and teaching for transfer in

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Unformatted text preview: ns involving strategies eventually become internalized as cognitive strategies for the individual student. Research on reciprocal teaching has generally supported it as an effective instructional approach for improving students’ text comprehension (Palincsar & Brown, 40 1984; Rosenshine & Meister, 1994). There are some data to suggest, however, that the effectiveness of reciprocal teaching can be improved by explicitly pre-teaching the strategies before engaging students in the reciprocal teaching experiences (Rosenshine & Meister, 1994). Social Cognitive Theory and Teaching for Transfer In Chapter 4 we presented Bandura’s social-cognitive learning theory. The principles, concepts, and strategies that have developed out of social cognitive theory provide important additional perspectives on how students learn and transfer strategies to self-regulate their learning. Principle 4.1: Learners Acquire Important Knowledge, Behaviors, and Dispositions Through Their Exposure to Models. Both social cognitive theory and information-processing theory would see considerable value in students learning transferable cognitive strategies. As mentioned in previous sections, having access to successful models of those strategies is an important component of different approaches to strategy instruction (Lapan, Kardach, & Turner, 2002; Snyder & Pressley, 1995). Because cognitive strategies are mental process, the type of modeling that is well matched to strategy instruction is cognitive modeling. Teachers would implement cognitive modeling by talking aloud as they execute a strategy (Oster, 2001). They might also include statements that help students focus their attention on important information about strategy by alerting students to common mistakes in implementing a strategy. 41 Principle 4.2: Learners’ Self-Belief Systems Guide their Learning and their Behavior. Students’ self-beliefs influence their motivation to perform, to learn cognitive strategies, and to transfer or apply what they have learned (Pressley, et al., 1989). From a social cognitive perspective, self-efficacy is an extremely important self-belief. As you remember form Chapter 4, self-efficacy is students’ belief about the likelihood of success with effort. Self-efficacy and cognitive strategy instruction mutually influence each other. First, Successful strategy instruction can help students develop more positive self-beliefs (Casteel, Isom, & Jordan, 2000). If strategies lead to successful performance, then students’ self-efficacy for those tasks may be enhanced. Also, students’ willingness to learn and apply cognitive strategies is influenced by their self-efficacy For example, self-efficacy beliefs affect students’ willingness to use effective learning strategies and to discard faulty strategies that aren’t working (Collins, 1982; Schunk, 1996; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990). Also, self-efficacy can affect students’ attributions for success (Bandura, 1993). In turn, students’ attributions can impact on their willingness to be strategic. Students with high self-efficacy are mor...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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