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Unformatted text preview: uence strategy learning. First, it takes considerable experience
with a strategy in order for students to become adept at applying that strategy (Duffy &
Roehler, 1989). Consequently, it may be better to acquaint students thoroughly with a
finite number of strategies than to provide cursory experiences with a large number of
strategies (Snyder & Pressley, 1995). For example, a team of secondary teachers could
identify three or four strategies that will be instructed in all their different classes.
Students will get extended exposure to the strategies in different contexts, which should
also facilitate transfer.
Second, learning a cognitive strategies can pose significant cognitive load,
especially when the strategy is new or unfamiliar (Perkins, Simmons, & Tishman, 1990).
You can manage this load by providing students with retrieval cues such as a list of the
steps in the strategy or a mnemonic that cues the steps in the process. Also, only a small
number of strategies should be introduced at one time. Finally, you could introduce
strategies with previously learned content or familiar problems so that students can focus
on the strategy rather than the newness of the content or problem. Introducing a cognitive
strategy with previously learned content also provides an opportunity for distributed
practice, and an opportunity for students to compare their success with and without the
Reciprocal teaching is an approach for teaching students cognitive strategies
through a collaborative and interactive learning structure (Palincsar & Brown; Palincsar
& Herrenkohl, 2002). Reciprocal teaching and other interactive structures such as the
Transactional Strategies Instruction (Brown, El-Dinary, Pressley, Coy-Ogan, 1995) and
Collaborative Strategic Learning (Bos & Vaughn, 2002; Vaughn & Klinger, 1999) allow
students to gain the meaning of written text through their interactions with other class
members including the teacher.
In the case of reciprocal teaching, students are engaged in a discussion of the
meaning of a text that is structured around the use of these four comprehension strategies:
prediction, clarification, questioning, and summarization (Palincsar & Herrenkohl, 2002).
At first, the teacher leads a discussion of a piece of text everyone has read, and models
and explains the comprehension strategies. The teacher would also will explicitly tell
students where and when these strategies will be useful (Pressley & Wharton-McDonald,
1997). Next, students take turns leading a discussion on subsequent text segments, while
the teacher provides guidance and scaffolding as students apply the strategies.
Eventually, control is transferred to the students and they lead the groups on their own.
Reciprocal teaching gradually transfers control of the reading process to the students
(Slater & Horstman, 2002). As such, it represents an example of Vygotsky’s idea of
internalization that we described in Chapter Five, because social interactio...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.
- Spring '08