Students will get extended exposure to the strategies

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Unformatted text preview: uence strategy learning. First, it takes considerable experience with a strategy in order for students to become adept at applying that strategy (Duffy & Roehler, 1989). Consequently, it may be better to acquaint students thoroughly with a finite number of strategies than to provide cursory experiences with a large number of strategies (Snyder & Pressley, 1995). For example, a team of secondary teachers could identify three or four strategies that will be instructed in all their different classes. Students will get extended exposure to the strategies in different contexts, which should also facilitate transfer. Second, learning a cognitive strategies can pose significant cognitive load, especially when the strategy is new or unfamiliar (Perkins, Simmons, & Tishman, 1990). You can manage this load by providing students with retrieval cues such as a list of the steps in the strategy or a mnemonic that cues the steps in the process. Also, only a small number of strategies should be introduced at one time. Finally, you could introduce strategies with previously learned content or familiar problems so that students can focus on the strategy rather than the newness of the content or problem. Introducing a cognitive strategy with previously learned content also provides an opportunity for distributed practice, and an opportunity for students to compare their success with and without the strategy. 39 Reciprocal teaching is an approach for teaching students cognitive strategies through a collaborative and interactive learning structure (Palincsar & Brown; Palincsar & Herrenkohl, 2002). Reciprocal teaching and other interactive structures such as the Transactional Strategies Instruction (Brown, El-Dinary, Pressley, Coy-Ogan, 1995) and Collaborative Strategic Learning (Bos & Vaughn, 2002; Vaughn & Klinger, 1999) allow students to gain the meaning of written text through their interactions with other class members including the teacher. In the case of reciprocal teaching, students are engaged in a discussion of the meaning of a text that is structured around the use of these four comprehension strategies: prediction, clarification, questioning, and summarization (Palincsar & Herrenkohl, 2002). At first, the teacher leads a discussion of a piece of text everyone has read, and models and explains the comprehension strategies. The teacher would also will explicitly tell students where and when these strategies will be useful (Pressley & Wharton-McDonald, 1997). Next, students take turns leading a discussion on subsequent text segments, while the teacher provides guidance and scaffolding as students apply the strategies. Eventually, control is transferred to the students and they lead the groups on their own. Reciprocal teaching gradually transfers control of the reading process to the students (Slater & Horstman, 2002). As such, it represents an example of Vygotsky’s idea of internalization that we described in Chapter Five, because social interactio...
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This document was uploaded on 03/29/2014 for the course EPS 324 at N. Arizona.

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